Annotated Appendix and Bibliography for Essay on Non-marital Sex and the Bible.

This is the supplementary guide attached to this article.

Primary Documents Referenced in Article:

  1. Glancy, Jennifer A. “The Sexual Use of Slaves: A Response to Kyle Harper on Jewish and Christian Porneia.” Journal of Biblical Literature, Society of Biblical Literature, 6 May 2015,
  2. Nord, Christiane. “Function plus Loyalty: Ethics in Professional Translation – UFS.”
  3. Harper, Kyle. “Porneia: The Making of a Christian Sexual Norm.” Scholarly Publishing Collective, Duke University Press, 1 July 2012,
  4. David Wheeler-Reed, et al. “Can a Man Commit πορνεία with His Wife?” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 137, no. 2, 2018, p. 383,
  5. “Does the New Testament Condemn Sexual Intercourse Outside Marriage? – ProQuest.”,
  6. Malina, Bruce. “Does Porneia Mean Fornication ?” Novum Testamentum, vol. 14, no. 1, 1972, pp. 10–17,×00070.
  7. Omanson, Roger L. “How Does It All Fit Together? Thoughts on Translating Acts 1.15–22 and 15.19–21.” The Bible Translator, vol. 41, no. 4, Oct. 1990, pp. 416–421,
  8. O’Rourke, John. “Does the New Testament Condemn Sexual Intercourse Outside Marriage? – ProQuest.”,
  9. Balch, David L, and Carolyn Osiek. Early Christian Families in Context : An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Grand Rapids, Mich., W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 2003. (Note: In particular, the Essay by Ms Osiek, titled “Female slaves, porneia, and the limits of obedience.”)
  10. Loader, William. ““Not as the Gentiles”: Sexual Issues at the Interface between Judaism and Its Greco-Roman World.” Religions, vol. 9, no. 9, 28 Aug. 2018, p. 258,
  11. Catharine Hezser, “Jewish Slavery in Antiquity.” Journal of Semitic Studies, vol. 53, no. 1, 1 Jan. 2008, pp. 175–176,

Notes on William Loader and Kyle Harper

William Loader

Few authors have delved as deeply into the sexual norms and practices of the Ancient Near East as William Loader. I highly recommend his books listed below. He is the minister of the Uniting Church in Australia and emeritus professor of New Testament at Murdoch University in Perth, Western Australia.

From 1978, Loader was New Testament lecturer at the Perth Theological Hall of the Uniting Church in Australia; from 1986, he was lecturer and later Professor of New Testament at Murdoch University (1998-2003 also as Head of the School of Social Inquiry).

Here are some of his many publications regarding sexuality in the days of the bible:

  • Two Views on Homosexuality, the Bible, and the Church, co-authored with Megan K. DeFranza, Wesley Hill, and Stephen R. Holmes (Counterpoints; ed. Preston Sprinkle (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2016))
  • Jesus in John’s Gospel: Structure and Issues in Johannine Christology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2017)
  • Making Sense of Sex: Attitudes towards Sexuality in Early Jewish and Christian Literature (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011)
  • The New Testament on Sexuality (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2013)
  • Philo, Josephus, and the Testaments on Sexuality: Attitudes towards Sexuality in the Writings of Philo, Josephus, and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011)
  • The Pseudepigrapha on Sexuality: Attitudes towards Sexuality in Apocalypses, Testaments, Legends, Wisdom, and Related Literature (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011)
  • Sexuality in the New Testament (London: SPCK, 2010)
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls on Sexuality: Attitudes towards Sexuality in Sectarian and Related Literature at Qumran (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2009)
  • EnochLevi, and Jubilees on Sexuality: Attitudes Towards Sexuality in the Early Enoch Literature, the Aramaic Levi Document, and the Book of Jubilees (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007)
  • The New Testament – with Imagination: A Fresh Approach to its Writings and Themes (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007)
  • Sexuality and the Jesus Tradition (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005)[1]
  • The Septuagint, Sexuality and the New Testament: Case Studies on the Impact of the LXX in Philo and the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004).
  • Jesus’ Attitude towards the Law. A Study of the Gospels (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002)
  • Jesus and the Fundamentalism of his Day. The Gospels, the Bible and Jesus (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001; Melbourne: Uniting Education, 1998)

Kyle Harper

While not as prolific as Loader, Harper is making a name for himself regarding the practice of sexuality in the days of the early christian church. As he describes himself on his webpage:

I am an historian interested in the ways that humanity has shaped nature and vice versa. I hold the G.T. and Libby Blankenship Chair in the History of Liberty and am Professor of Classics and Letters, Senior Advisor to the President, and Provost Emeritus at my alma mater, the University of Oklahoma. I am also a Fractal Faculty member at the Santa Fe Institute.

My main research interests include the history of infectious disease and climate change and their impact on human societies. More broadly, I write on the history of humans as agents of ecological change and asks how we can approach questions such as biodiversity, health, and environmental sustainability from a historical perspective.

I recommend his two books on sexuality and the ancient world:  Slavery in the Late Roman World, was published in 2011 and awarded the James Henry Breasted Prize. The second book, From Shame to Sin: The Christian Transformation of Sexual Morality, appeared in 2013 and received the Award for Excellence in Historical Studies from the American Academy of Religion. 

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